Despite the high interest and concern around the rising phenomenon of mixed migration, there are virtually no systems in place nationally or regionally to monitor the mixed migration flows. Policy formation, political debate and programming is taking place in a context that is predominantly data-poor, or even data free. The challenge is considerable due to the clandestine nature of these smuggler-dominated movements and the disparate routes used and methods of movement. In mid-2014 the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS) created the Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (4Mi) as an attempt to address the need for better data. The 4Mi is an innovative, low-cost approach to collect and analyse data on mixed migration flows, initially out of the Horn of Africa. Through a network of thirty locally-recruited monitors in strategic migration hubs in Northern, Eastern, and Southern Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East, the 4Mi project tracks Eritrean, Ethiopian, Djiboutian and Somali people on the move.
The context – a data challenge
Monitors are local individuals, members of existing agencies and others forming a network around key migration ‘nodes’ and ‘hotspots’. The monitors use a custom-designed mobile phone application to submit real-time data on mixed migration issues in their locations. Collaboration with existing refugee and migration–focused agencies in the region is maximized. Monitors are in the public and private sectors – their key capacity is their knowledge of their locality and contacts with people on the move or those who have contact with people on the move. All 4Mi applications are controlled by 4Mi management and when new reports need to be added or existing questionnaires need to be adapted this can occur simultaneously through the smart phone network.
The scale and scope of mixed migration movement means that a project like 4Mi can only find and illuminate certain pieces of the mixed migration puzzle. Other agencies and authorities may have other pieces of the puzzle, which, when added together allow us to understand and track mixed migration phenomena better.
4Mi is moving on to Phase 2
This website shows the results of the Phase 1 of the 4Mi project. The data and analysis provided on this website are based on interviews with people on the move conducted by 4Mi field monitors across Africa and Europe from 2015 up to February 2017.
During Phase 1, the 4Mi project interviewed 3,784 migrants, 153 smugglers and 289 observers. The results from these interviews are still accessible on this website, which has been updated on a monthly basis. The Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS), which implements the 4Mi project, is working on several new briefing papers, which will showcase a more in-depth analysis on the results from 4Mi Phase 1.
The 4Mi project will now move on to Phase 2, which will see the implementation of new survey questionnaires and the launch of a new website. During this transition, this website will no longer be updated, but all previous data will remain accessible. The results on this website represent only those who responded, and the sample size is indicated on each page.